Specific immunotherapy of respiratory allergies and allergies to insect venomes (bee, wasp, bumblebee, hornet)
Specific allergen immunotherapy is the only etiological therapy of allergic diseases that can modify the course and progression of the disease; it reduces the symptoms of allergic diseases, the need for medication, prevent the development of asthma and sensitization to other inhaled allergens.
It is performed by repeated administration of specific allergens with a gradual increase in dose in order to reduce allergic symptoms. It is performed using a standardized allergen extract, with gradually increase the dose of allergen to achieve a maintenance dose and repeat it at certain intervals, usually once a month to once every 3 months, seasonally or throughout the year for 3 to 5 years. Thus, an attempt is made to achieve immune tolerance and reduce the severity of a type I allergic reaction or to eliminate it completely.
Inhalation allergens can be administered sublingually (drops under the tongue), or subcutaneously (injections), while bee or wasp allergens can only be administered subcutaneously.
There is a risk of side effects that may be manifested by a local reaction at the site of allergen application (itching, swelling, burning of the tongue, palate and pharynx, and abdominal pain) but also systemic reactions such as urticaria, angioedema, rhinorrhea, bronchospasm, gastrointestinal symptoms and, ultimately, life-threatening anaphylaxis.
There is no alternative etiological treatment.